The word "vitamins" is the general name for those nutrient substances which are necessary for the life process. They are essential for normal growth, health and metabolism.
Vitamins have a place in many vital functions such as strengthening the immune system, antioxidant, anti-stress and detoxifying roles. They protect cell walls, they are necessary for the formation of proteins and, in addition, have a protective function for the heart. They play a role in hormonal regulation and fat metabolism, etc. With few exceptions, vitamins cannot be produced by the body. They must therefore be provided by food.
There are two kinds of vitamins: water-soluble vitamins (water-soluble) and fat-soluble vitamins (fat-soluble).
Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat-soluble. They are mainly active in specific sites of the tissues to make the structure function correctly. They can be stored in the liver, kidneys and marrow. Other vitamins that are water-soluble are found in body fluids. They act as constituents or activators of enzymes for chemical transformations and/or transmission of stimuli to muscles and nerves. They are not stored and must be brought regularly. Horses can produce vitamins B and K in the small intestine, large intestine and cecum. Most often vitamin B is not available in sufficient quantity.
There is a close relationship between vitamins, minerals and trace elements, thus, regarding vitamin D; the need for it depends on the amount of calcium-phosphorus that must be absorbed into the body.
In general we can say: more stress = more need for vitamins. Especially sport horses, broodmares, growing young horses and stallions have an increased need for vitamins.
lives. A - retinol antioxidant, resistance against infection - important for skin, hair, teeth, bones, mucous membranes, fertility and everything related to reproduction - for the function of vitamin A zinc is necessary;
lives. B - thiamine releases energy from the fodder - regulates the heart rate - participates in the production of red blood cells - protects the nervous system - important for growth and development, especially at the start of lactation;
lives. B2 - riboflavin important for carbohydrate metabolism - is a coenzyme in the antioxidant system - maintains red blood cells, muscles, eyes, skin and bones;
lives. B3 - niacin important for energy regulation - for the formation of sex hormones - for digestion - for cholesterol metabolism;
lives. B5 - pantothenic acid important for proper functioning of the brain, nervous system, immune system, adrenal glands and energy regulation - partially eliminates fats and cholesterol;
lives. B6 - pyridoxine plays a role in enzymatic reactions, in the metabolism of cholesterol and proteins, in the formation of red blood cells - is important for the proper functioning of the immune system;
lives. B12 - cyanocobalamin important for the formation of red blood cells, hemoglobin - for DNA synthesis - for the metabolism of nerve cells - for energy regulation - stimulates the functioning of the immune system and intestinal flora - important for the quality and the quantity of sperm;
biotin or vit. B7 or lives. H important for energy and protein metabolism - for fat metabolism - for coat, hooves and intestinal flora;
folic acid or vit. B9 essential for the formation of red blood cells - influences the secretion of gastric juice, liver functions, mitotic processes, protein metabolism and DNA synthesis
choline or vit. B4 constituent part of lecithin, important for the functioning of the nervous system, for the transport of fats, for the liver, kidneys and blood system;
lives. C - ascorbic acid the most important antioxidant, essential for building collagen, for the immune system, for the formation of adrenaline and other hormones, for the transport and storage of iron, for building bones, improves arbsorption calcium and magnesium, for the recovery of tissues and the functioning of white blood cells, has an anti-inflammatory function;
lives. P - bioflavonoids an antioxidant, completes the contribution and role of vit. C, has an anti-inflammatory function;
lives. D - calciferol essential for calcium-phosphorus regulation, regulates growth, hardening and healing of bones, forms in the skin under the influence of sunlight;
lives. E - alpha-tocoferol most important antioxidant in fatty tissues, protects cell membranes.
lives. K - phytomenadione important factor in blood clotting reactions, enters hepatic metabolism - has a role in the formation of bone cells.